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Effective government policies are essential to increase the healthiness of food environments and to reduce obesity, NCDs, and their related inequalities. Food environments are defined as the collective physical, economic, policy and socio-cultural surroundings, opportunities and conditions that influence people’s food and beverage choices and nutritional status. Unhealthy food environments lead to unhealthy diets and excess energy intake which have consequences in levels of morbidity and mortality. It is critical that Governments implement preventive policies and actions to match the magnitude of the burden that unhealthy diets are creating. Monitoring the level of implementation of the policies and actions recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is an important part of ensuring progress towards better nutritional health.

The Food-EPI index consists of two components (Policies and Infrastructure Support), 13 domains and 47 good practice indicators. A national expert panel aims to rate the level of implementation of policies on food environments by the Government against international best practice, and then, based on the implementation gaps, propose and prioritize key actions for implementation by the government.

The Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI)

In Australia, the Food-EPI was applied at the federal, as well as the state level. The project team worked closely with government officials to document current policy actions (up to 30 June 2016) in each jurisdiction, across 42 policy areas of the Food-EPI tool. Over 100 experts (including academics, nutritionists, and senior representatives from health NGOs and community groups) from 53 organisations assessed the extent of implementation in each policy area, for each level of government. They also identified policy recommendations for each jurisdiction, and prioritised them based on their perceived importance and achievability. Food-EPI Executive Summary Report Australia

The 2019 Food Policy Index Update report provides a follow up to the 2017 Food Policy Index report. It summarises and assesses the actions taken by Australian governments (July 2016 – December 2018) in relation to the recommended policies identified in the 2017 report. Food-EPI Update 2019


A panel of more than 70 non-governmental experts from 44 universities and non-governmental and professional organizations from across Canada gathered to comprehensively assess Canadian food environment policies compared to international benchmarks of current best practices. Food-EPI Full Report Canada “Creating Healthier Food environments in Canada: Current policies and priority actions” Executive Summary  

Canadian adaptation of Food-EPI to municipalities

Local or municipal governments are often the first to implement innovative healthy food policies, as exemplified in the policy development of menu labelling of calories and taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, and municipal policy has been shown to influence state/provincial and federal level legislation through bottom-up policy diffusion, as seen clearly in the development of tobacco regulations over time. The study was the first adapt the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) to the municipal context, known as the Local Food-EPI, and pilot the framework to identify policies and infrastructure supports implemented in three municipal jurisdictions in Ontario, Canada with different population densities and governance structures: The City of Toronto, Region of Peel, and the City of Greater Sudbury.

While municipal governments in Ontario are using a variety of approaches to create healthy food environments, local government and non-government experts agreed there are areas for further improvement. The Local Food-EPI can be used by municipal jurisdictions to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in their local food environment policies.

For more information on the Local Food-EPI, please contact

Kimiya Karbasy (;

Lana Vanderlee (;

Mary L’Abbe (

Official reports with the evidence documents:

City of Toronto

Region of Peel

City of Greater Sudbury

A Food-EPI was conducted for England with a national Expert Panel involving 73 experts from 41 organisations. This Index evaluates how well England is doing in the development of healthy food policies and identifies priorities for action. The Food-EPI was launched in Parliament in November 2016. Food-EPI Full Report England Food Environment Policy Brief England Food-EPI infographics UK

The 2021 Food-EPI EU Report provides an overview of EU-level policies influencing food environments in EU Member States. It was prepared by the Policy Evaluation Network with Universiteit Utrecht and Wageningen University. 

Find the reports here:

EU Food-EPI Report 2021

EU Evidence Report



von Philipsborn P, Geffert K, Klinger C, Hebestreit A, Stratil J, Rehfuess E, for the PEN Consortium: Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) Ergebnisbericht für Deutschland. 2021. [Report in German] Online:

Laar, A., Barnes, A., Aryeetey, R., Tandoh, A., Bash, K., Mensah, K., Zotor, F., Vandevijvere, S., Holdsworth, M. (2020) Implementation of healthy food environment policies to prevent nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in Ghana: National experts’ assessment of government action. Food Policy, 93, 101907.

Larr, A., Barnes, A., Bash, K., Aryeeley, R., Mensah, K., Vandevijvere, S., & Holdsworth, M. (2019). Benchmarking Ghana’s Policies for Creating Healthy Food Environments. doi:10.17608/k6.auckland.8188763

Food-EPI has been completed in Ireland by the Policy Evaluation Network and the School of Public Health at University College Cork, Ireland. 

Find the reports here:

Ireland Food-EPI Report 2020

Asiki, G; Wanjohi, M; Barnes, A; Bash, K; Vandevijvere, S, Muthuri S, Kimani E, Holdsworth, M. (2019). Benchmarking policies for creating healthy food environments in Kenya to prevent diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) country scorecards and priority recommendations for action in Kenya.

The Healthy Food-Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) report card is now in the public domain for Malaysia since 2018. The Food-EPI tool, developed by INFORMAS, has 47 indicators relating to food environment policies and infrastructure support. Data collected between August 2016 and April 2017 covered 13 Government Ministries, at Federal level. The engagement process of the Food-EPI enabled participation of government stakeholders, even during the benchmarking process which saw  26 public health experts from non-governmental organisations (n=15) and academia or professionals (n=11) rating the extent of implementation of the policies in Malaysia, against international best practice.

In general, a majority (62%) of policy areas were rated as low implementation (26-50%), with 38% as medium implementation (51-75%).  A total of 8 domains covering both ‘policy’ and ‘infrastructure support’ components were prioritised as most important and achievable measures for the government, in facilitating a healthy food environment. For more details on these findings, please refer to the technical report titled, Food-Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI): Benchmarking Current Priorities and Determining Priorities for Future Policies for the Malaysian Government 2016-2017”.

For more information on this project, please contact:

Prof. Tilakavati Karupaiah (


Food-EPI has been repeated in New Zealand in the years of the 2014, 2017 and 2020 national elections. New Zealand has an unacceptably high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Two in three adults and one in three children are overweight or obese. Diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, are the biggest cause of death and ill-health in New Zealand and they are preventable. Dietary risk factors (high salt intake, high saturated fat intake and low fruit and vegetable intake) and excess energy intake (high body mass index) account for 11.4% of health losses in New Zealand. It is critical that the New Zealand Government implements preventive policies and actions to match the magnitude of the burden that unhealthy diets are creating in New Zealand. Monitoring the level of implementation of the policies and actions recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) is an important part of ensuring progress towards better nutritional health for New Zealanders.

An Expert Panel of independent and government Public Health experts rate the extent of implementation of policies on food environments and infrastructure support by the New Zealand Government against international best practice. Their ratings of each of the 47 good practice indicators were based on documented evidence, validated by government officials, and international best practice benchmarks. The level of implementation was categorised as ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’, or ‘very little, if any’.


Food-EPI 2020

The level of implementation of the indicators has not changed since 2017 (40 indicators unchanged, 6 worse, 1 better) showing that New Zealand has not increased its performance compared with international best practice. 

The Government is strongly urged to act on the top recommendations in the four key areas outlined in the report to improve the diets of New Zealanders, especially children, and reduce the rising health care costs from obesity and diet-related NCDs. The Expert Panel recommended 39 actions, prioritising 13 for immediate action. There needs to be clear leadership including the development of of a multi-sectoral Food Systems and Nutrition strategy.

The Summary Report, Food-EPI score card, full evidence document and online appendices, can be found here:

Food-EPI Summary Report June 2020 (4 pages)

Food-EPI Full Report June 2020

Food-EPI Online Appendix 1, Online Appendix 2, Online Appendix 3

Evidence Document for 2020 Food-EPI





 Dr Sally Mackay, from the School of Population Health at the University of Auckland, led the review of our food systems and nutrition. She said, “In health and environmental terms, our current food systems are our greatest liability but with a concerted national effort, they could be our greatest asset.” The Food-EPI study (Healthy Food Environment Policy Index) is the latest in a series first conducted in 2014. “Unfortunately, the Government has continued the failure of the last two terms of National-led governments to not act to introduce food policies recommended by the World Health Organisation that would turn around New Zealand’s massive obesity and diabetes problems.”

The review finds that without the transformation of our food systems, the Government will be unable to fulfil its international obligations to the Paris Agreement on climate change and towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Without reform the review doubts if progress can be made on Government priorities to lift child health and wellbeing, reduce inequities, and clean up polluted waterways. Dr Mackay said, “At the moment, food-related policy is characterised by fragmentation, inaction, and insufficient focus on the health, environment and equity goals that food systems can achieve. The acute Covid-19 crisis showed what a concerted, science-based, government-led approach can achieve and the same principles could be applied to the chronic crisis in our food systems. Covid-19 also exposed other cracks in our food systems as many families dropped into food poverty and had to join the long lines outside food banks.”


Food-EPI 2017

The 2017 Food-EPI was conducted from April to May 2017 by a New Zealand Expert Panel of 71.   Over two thirds of the specific food policy indicators but less than one third of the infrastructure support were rated as ‘low’ or ‘very little, if any’ implementation. Taxes on unhealthy foods and beverages and zoning laws to restrict unhealthy food outlets around schools had no evidence of implementation whereas restricting unhealthy food marketing to children and having healthy food policies in schools and early childhood centres were rated as low implementation. Four workshops around the country with the experts also identified and prioritised actions for the Government to improve food environments and contribute to a reduction in obesity and diet-related diseases. There are however major implementation gaps with about 70% of the recommended policies such as healthy food in schools, fiscal policies and marketing restrictions for unhealthy foods. One third of the infrastructure support systems rated as ‘low’ or ‘very little, if any’ implementation.. The Expert Panel recommended 53 actions in total but prioritised 9 for immediate action.The Government is strongly urged to act on these recommendations to improve the diets of New Zealanders, especially for children, and to reduce the burgeoning health care costs of obesity and unhealthy diets. 

The Executive Summary, Food-EPI score card, full evidence document and online appendices, can be found here:

Food-EPI Executive Summary 18 July 2017

Food-EPI Scorecard 2017

Food-EPI Full Report 18 July 2017

Food-EPI Online Appendices 2017


Food-EPI 2014

More than 50 experts participated in the first Food-EPI in May 2014. It was found that the New Zealand Government was performing well, at the level of international best practice, in regards to preventing unhealthy foods carrying health claims, providing ingredient lists and nutrition information panels on packaged foods, transparency in policy development processes, providing access to information for the public and monitoring prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors. However, major ‘implementation gaps’ were identified with the level of implementation of about three quarters (74%) of the policy indicators and half (48%) of the infrastructure support indicators rated as ‘low’ or ‘very little, if any’ compared to international best practice. There was no comprehensive obesity/NCD action plan and restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, fiscal policies, food retail policies and protection of food environments from trade and investment agreements were virtually non-existent. The ratings were informed by extensive documented evidence of current implementation of policies by the Government, validated by government officials, and international best practice examples or benchmarks for each of the indicators. The summary and scorecard from 2014 can be found here: Executive Summary and Scorecard 2014 Based on the implementation gaps identified, the Expert Panel recommended 34 concrete actions to improve the healthiness of food environments, prioritising 7 for immediate action

The full Food-EPI report 2014 can be found here: Food-EPI Full Report 2014    

Food-EPI has been completed in Norway by the Policy Evaluation Network and Oslo Metropolitan University. 

Find the 2020 reports here: 

Norwegian Food-EPI Report 2020

Norway Evidence Document

Norway Recommended Measures and Priorities

Food-EPI has been completed in the Netherlands by the Policy Evaluation Network, Universiteit Utrecht, and Wageningen University.

Find the 2020 reports here:

Dutch Food-EPI Report 2020

Dutch Evidence Report